ANNUAL BRUESSARD AWARD

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Page Outline:

  1. 2022 Winner's Podium: Space Delta 2
  2. A Little Satellite Background History: FROM THEN TO NOW
  3. The Flourishing of Artificial Satellites
  4. From Artificial Satellites to Space Debris
  5. From Space Debris to Space Weather
  6. From Space Weather to Space Safety and Sustainability
  7. The Jumpoff: From Living in the Slums to Living on the Moon, Mars, Space Colonies, and Beyond the Solar System (Through Sustainable Earth and Sustainable Outer Space), Or An Elevation of the Human Mindset and the Human Condition to A Higher Living Mode
  8. Honorable Mention And A Big Shout Out to PDCO and CNEOS
  9. A Celebration of Humanity and A Celebration of the Miracle of Life on Earth

I. 2022 WINNER'S PODIUM: Space Delta 2

Please join me in recognizing the Space Delta 2 Squadrons of the USA Space Force. In general, I wish to recognize the USA Department of Defense (DoD) for its role in being a pacesetter in performing the dual tasks of artificial-satellite tracking and artificial-satellite-debris tracking, which, alternatively, are known as space situational awareness (SSA) and space traffic management (STM) endeavors. In particular, I wish to recognize the 18th, 20th, and 21st squadrons of Space Delta 2 along with the Detachment 2 unit. Over the decades, through Space Delta 2's artificial-satellite tracking and artificial-satellite-debris tracking efforts, the collective squadrons have played pivotal, invaluable, and crucial roles in their efforts to preserve and maintain order within the space-domain realm.


Space Delta 2 Squadrons of the USA Space Force

Emblems for Space Delta 2 and its squadron: 18th Space Defense Squadron | 20th Space Defense Squadron | 21st Space Defense Squadron | Detachment 2

Perhaps Wikipedia put the matter of SSA and STM into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Synopsis:

USA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Space Traffic Management (STM)

"Following the establishment of the United States Space Force, the 21st Space Wing and 21st Operations Group remained units of the U.S. Air Force assigned to United States Space Force. On 24 July 2020, the Space Force reorganized its wings and groups into deltas, inactivating the 21st Space Wing and redesignated the 21st Operations Group as Space Delta 2. Space Delta 2 transferred its space warning squadrons to Space Delta 4, retaining its space domain awareness squadrons. On 21 October 2020, with the redesignation of United States Space Force as Space Operations Command, Space Delta 2 transferred from a unit of the United States Air Force to the United States Space Force."

As the USA Space Force prepares to hand over the task of space-domain awareness to the USA Department of Commerce, this year's award is meant to honor all of those who, over the years, have played a role and led the way in tracking and documenting the proliferation of artificial satellites and artificial satellite debris. As an adjunct to the broader militaristic mission of the USA Space Force, there is a narrower mission to search, find, document, track, and notify interested parties or stakeholders about likely or impending satellite-collision dangers and satellite-debris dangers.

AUTHOR'S SIDE NOTE: Although many reorganizations and realignments have occurred within the USA Department of Defense since the of inception of its space situational awareness (SSA) mission, SSA has been a core part of the USA's overall military defensive posture since 1958 when the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) unit was created within the USA Department of Defense. According to wikipedia.org, "Space Detection and Tracking System, or SPADATS, was built in 1960 to integrate defense systems built by different branches of the United States Armed Forces and was placed under North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). The Air Force had a program called Spacetrack, which was a network of space-probing cameras and radar…Project Space Track was a research and development project of the US Air Force, to create a tracking system for all artificial satellites of the Earth and space probes, domestic and foreign." In effect, SPADATS of 1960 has morphed into the Office of Space Commerce in 2022.

This year's 2022 Annual Bruessard Award specifically is devoted to shining a brighter spotlight on the universal need for more substantive and astute artificial-satellites and artificial-satellite-debris tracking and management. The USA Department of Defense has played a prominent role in this outer-space or space-domain realm. This page will not be examining topics such as the militarization of outer space, national security, or intelligence-gathering types of activities currently taking place in Earth's outer space domain. This year's award is confined to examining the "surveil" aspect of the broader space domain, which means to surveil the movements and positions of artificial satellites and artificial-satellite debris. The purpose of this year's award is to draw attention to and celebrate some of the more peaceful and beneficial uses that humans have made of atmospheric outer space.

Elsewhere, I have made a distinction between my primary mission in life (which is to enlighten, inspire, promote, and exalt the dream of "an Earth that can be") versus the military's mission (which is to cope with the realities of "an Earth that is"). The military goes about the business of doing what it does, and I go about the business of doing what I do. In my case, what I do is to encourage peace on Earth and goodwill between humans. I go about the business of promoting life, prosperity, and growth for the whole of the human family. [End AUTHOR'S SIDE NOTE]

Getting back to the 2022 Annual Bruessard Award, an often repeated phrase or proverb goes something like this: "Everything comes to an end," which is attributed to Geoffrey Chaucer, the English author, poet, and philosopher. Such is the case when it comes to artificial satellites in orbit in outer space. Artificial satellites, too, come to an end in the sense that they stop functioning whether from accidental collisions, deliberate collisions, missile strikes, mechanical failures, or being hit by a shower of meteorites or a shower of artificial satellite debris. Artificial satellites do not function forever. At some point after launch, artificial satellites will stop working. The question becomes this: What will happen to these inoperable artificial satellites and satellite parts floating around immediately above Earth in outer space? Historically, the chore of managing satellite traffic in outer space has fallen to the USA Department of Defense. Today, as of 2022, there are multiple players and countries involved in the dual tasks of artificial-satellite tracking and artificial-satellite-debris tracking.

With multiple countries now launching artificial satellites into outer space and with outer space increasingly being used for civilian and commercial purposes, how is the space domain to be organized, standardized, managed, and regulated going forward for the remainder of the 21st century and beyond? The multilateral United Nations (UN)'s Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which has been signed by at least 112 countries, stipulates that outer space shall remain free for all countries to use and with no particular country having any type of ownership claims to any part of outer space. As is typically the case in situations like this, in theory, outer space belongs to nobody in particular. In reality, outer space is dominated by those countries and businesses with the knowledge, resources, expertise, and wherewithal to harness it.

Over the years since NORAD's 1957 inception, when it comes to the task of tracking artificial satellites and artificial satellite debris, USA Department of Defense has undergone countless iterations or organizational changes. During the Trump Presidency, the most recent iteration or organizational change to occur regarding the USA Department of Defense's approach to space domain awareness / space situational awareness was the creation of the United States Space Force (USSF) on December 20, 2019. The next three graphics illustrate how the United States Space Force fits within the overall organizational structure of the USA Department of Defense. The graphics drill down to the military-space segment of the multi-segmented space domain. Finally, the "surveil" aspect of military space is where Space Delta 2 resides. Click each of the three graphics for additional information.



Military Services of the USA Department of Defense



USA Department of Defense's Space Domain



Space Force Leadership Military Space drill down to target missions. This year's Annual Bruessard Award focuses on the USA Air Force's (now USA Space Force's) Space Control and Surveil mission within the framework of a broader Outer Space Domain.


Diagram of Space Fence and the USA's Space Surveillance Network Diagram of Space Fence and the USA Space Surveillance Network—a pivotal component of the USA Space Force's Space Control and Surveil mission.


US Space Force declares space surveillance radar site as operational US Space Force Director of Operations and Communications Brig Gen DeAnna Burt formally declared initial operational capability and operational acceptance of the Space Fence radar system. Credit: Lt Kristen Shimkus.

20th Space Control Squadron: AFSPC's premier space surveillance squadron A 20th SPCS space control operator monitors information from the radar at Eglin, AFB recently. Every number on the monitor represents an object the radar is tracking. Using different keystrokes, the space console operator can direct the radar to track what the Joint Space Operations Center needs to maintain space situational awareness. (U.S. Air Force photo)

18th SPCS stands guard over space Airmen of the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) monitor computer systems designed to detect, track, and identify all artificial objects in Earth's orbit at Vandenberg AFB, Calif, Sept. 27, 2014. Its mission is to provide a focal point for the operational employment of worldwide joint space forces and enable the commander of Joint Functional Component Command for Space to integrate space power into global military operations. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman 1st Class Krystal Ardrey)

New squadron provides space awareness | (U.S. Air Force graphic by Airman 1st Class Dennis Hoffman) New squadron provides space awareness

The five basic layers of the atmosphere The five basic layers of the atmosphere (including the altitude point of the Kármán line at 100 kilometers or 62 miles high in the sky above sea level): the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.


Also, during the Trump Presidency, it was noted that, more than likely, the space domain would become increasingly commercial in scope, hence, the launching of more artificial satellites into outer space. As a result, a huge change was proposed to the USA's approach for overseeing SSA/STM activities in outer space. A decision was made to migrate, transition, or reassign the tasks of artificial-satellites tracking and artificial-satellite-debris tracking from the auspices of the military's USA Department of Defense. A decision was made to transfer SSA/STM tasks to the civilian USA Department of Commerce. As of 2022, the USA Commerce Department will be in charge of the USA's artificial-satellites tracking and artificial-satellite-debris tracking efforts.

With passage of the USA Congress's Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021, which was adopted on 27-December-2020, the USA Commerce Department received its initial funding to build a prototype space domain tracking and management system. The USA Commerce Department's Office of Space Commerce is expected to have a new space domain tracking and management system in operation by 2024. [It also should be noted that, within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) broader Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA), USA governmental entities such as NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) continue to play tertiary roles in orbital-debris tracking.] The next graphic shows a straight line, top-to-bottom view of the USA Department of Commerce's organization. The next graphic drills down to Office of Space Commerce where it currently resides under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Discussions are underway to move the Office of Space Commerce from NOAA to a different reporting structure within the USA Department of Commerce due to the Office of Space Commerce's expanded responsibilities, visibility, and the increased commercialization of the space domain.



Office of Space Commerce Department of Commerce's straight line reporting from the top of the department down to NOAA's Office of Space Commerce (OSC)


Watch (What is the Space Economy?)


Looking back to recent 20th century history, the Internet had its origins in the USA Department of Defense. The Internet, in general, and the World Wide Web, in particular, later came to be dominated by commercial interests. In a similar vein, going back to the 1950's and 1960's, the space domain (including the presence of artificial satellites) primarily was dominated by the USA and was under the purview of the USA military. Now, as of 2022, an Internet parallel phenomenon is occurring whereby the space domain is beginning to be dominated by multi-national commercial interests. More and more private, commercial satellites are being launched into orbit each year by more and more countries and businesses.

In tandem with the increasing commercialization of the space domain, a commercial space ecosystem has begun to emerge to support the rapid population of the Earth's atmosphere with artificial satellites. The USA Department of Commerce tentatively intends to create an all-encompassing, international-friendly system for tracking artificial satellites and artificial satellite debris. The new cloud-based open architecture data repository (OADR) approach, globally, is supposed to be capable of receiving, integrating, and analyzing satellite and satellite-debris data from multiple public-sector, social-sector, and private-sector sources. Similar approaches already exist such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)'s Observing Systems Capability Analysis and Review (OSCAR) approach for monitoring global weather patterns, Climate Analytics / NewClimate Institute's Climate Action Tracker approach for monitoring climate change, and Caltech/JPL's Solar System Dynamics (SSD) approach for mapping Solar System objects including comets and asteroids.



Maneuvering into the Future: Open-Architecture Data Repository Demonstration | NOAA's Office of Space Commerce The Office of Space Commerce released a prototype of the open architecture data repository, or OADR, a cloud-based system designed to track satellites and debris in space. Credit: NOAA


Watch [Media Briefing: Open-Architecture Data Repository (OADR)]


The following organizational charts provide a fuller overview of the USA Department of Commerce. In particular, these charts drill down from the USA Department of Commerce to its National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) unit, and finally to its National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) office where NOAA's Office of Space Commerce presently resides. The tracking of artificial satellites and artificial satellite debris will occur within the Office of Space Commerce. Notably, the fiscal year 2023 USA federal budget's proposes $87.7 million in funding for the Office of Space Commerce including moving the Office of Space Commerce from within NEDIS to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Observations and Prediction's reporting line within broader the USA Department of Commerce's organizational framework.



As of January 2022, the Department [of Commerce] had approximately 47,000 employees. The Department's workforce ranges from 321 uniformed service officers in the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps, 263 diplomats who are Foreign Commercial Service Officers, 166 badged law enforcement officers in BIS, 8,961 patent examiners at USPTO, to more than 37,000 other civil service employees who deliver critical services directly to U.S. businesses and the public. Department of Commerce's missions, activities, and workforce


NOAA Org Chart


National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Organization Chart | nesdis.noaa.gov
The above organizational charts depict the USA Department of Commerce's reporting structure with a focus on its National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) unit in general, and its National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) office in particular where NOAA's Office of Space Commerce presently resides.


One thing is certain, and it is this: Given the altogether millions of pieces of space debris floating around above Earth—albeit the overwhelming majority of them are very tiny pieces of debris that are less than 1 millimeter in size— and given the proliferation of artificial satellite launches, the USA Department of Commerce's Office of Space Commerce will have its long-term work cut out for itself, that is, in getting its arms around tracking and managing the paths of all of those artificial satellites and all of that orbital debris. The next graphic illustrates this enormous amount of space debris presently in orbit around Earth.

A debt of gratitude is owed to the USA Department of Defense for all of its space situational awareness (SSA) and space traffic management (STM) efforts over the years as it hands over the SSA/STM job to the USA Department of Commerce. The USA Department of Defense has performed its SSA/STM role admirably. For instance, the USA Department of Defense and its 18th Space Defense Squadron (18 SDS) have accomplished tremendous work over the years in the ongoing feeding of space situational awareness data to the globally popular space-track.org website. As for the USA Department of Commerce's Office of Space Commerce, as it prepares to inherit the reigns of performing SSA/STM-related functions, as some would put it, the Office of Space Commerce has "one ginormous headache" on its hands. It will be a challenge for the Office of Space Commerce to devise a system from the ground up, so to speak, to track all of those artificial satellites and all of that artificial satellite debris floating around in Earth's outer space. Good luck and stay tuned for more to come from the Office of Space Commerce.



How Much Junk Is Currently Up There? Estimated quantity and size of space debris


Admittedly, most space-debris graphics are somewhat alarming. They give an impression of severe overcrowdedness in outer space. Judging from the maps and graphics, it appears as if a rocket launched into space would find it difficult to maneuver through the debris. The fact of the matter is this: Space is big and mostly empty. There is a lot of voidness up there in the vacuum of outer space. At the same time, if the amount of debris above Earth begins to proliferate exponentially to a tipping point or precipice (that is, if the so-called Kessler effect occurs in honest), then conceivably the space debris could hinder the ability of spacecraft and artificial satellites to safely navigate through Earth's atmospheric outer space domain at some future date.

After viewing the various artificial-satellite and artificial-space-debris tracking maps and graphics, an obvious question becomes this: If there are so many artificial satellites orbiting Earth and if there is so much artificial satellite debris currently in orbit above Earth, then how can it be that humans simply cannot look to the sky and view some of that stuff floating around up there in orbit above Earth? The answers are varied such as:

  1. The distance, size, and brightness of an object impact vision.
  2. Weather conditions on Earth (such as cloud cover and smog) impact vision.

It has been noted that, on average, the human eye vertically can perceive objects (such as artificial satellites) for up to about 25 or so miles into the sky. On the other hand, humans can perceive distant stars in the night sky because they are both very large and very bright against the background of a dark sky. Even closer to home, humans have no problem whatsoever viewing the relatively large Moon, which is brightly lit at night by the light of the Sun.

It also has been noted that, whereas most commercial airplanes do not fly any higher than 14 kilometers (or close to 9 miles) high in the sky, some of the lowest artificial satellites orbit the Earth at about 200 kilometers (or close to 125 miles) high in the sky. According to NOAA, artificial satellites can range in size anywhere from the size of a lunch box to the size of a school bus. The largest artificial satellite in orbit around Earth is the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbits the sky at roughly 410 kilometers (or roughly 255 miles) above Earth and is said to be about the size of a football field. Keep in mind that most of the tracked space debris is no larger than the size of a baseball. Noting how difficult it is for humans to see an airplane flying at 14 kilometers in the sky without intensive focusing using the naked eye, it would be quite difficult indeed to stand on Earth and see an object the size of a baseball floating around in the sky at over 200 kilometers away. Websites such as n2yo.com and findstarlink.com do permit humans to track various artificial satellites high in the sky as do various mobile phone applications.

For purposes of defining the meaning of being an official astronaut, you would need to venture at least 80 kilometers (or 50 miles) into the space above Earth. At 100 kilometers (or 62 miles) above Earth, the so-called Kármán line has been reached which represents the officially recognized boundary between Earth and outer space. When space tourism spacecrafts such as Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic conduct launches, they at least strive to reach the 80-kilometer marker of outer space before returning to Earth. Notice how spectators on the ground cannot see those space tourism spacecrafts when they reach a height of 80 kilometers (or 50 miles) in the sky. Imagine if much smaller artificial satellites orbit the Earth at much higher heights than the space tourism spacecrafts, then it would be all the more difficult to see these artificial satellites with the naked eye with all other things being equal such as the absence of a reflecting light. The point here is this: For the most part, the naked eye is not equipped to perceive these artificial satellites orbiting above Earth. The next graphic depicts the location of the Kármán line in outer space.



Image depicting the Kármán Line | Credit: sciencenotes.org There is no universal definition for where space begins, but a typical value is 100 kilometers or 62 miles high in the sky above sea level also known as the Kármán line.


Then and now: visualizing COVID-19's impact on air traffic | Flightradar24.com Blog Visualizing air traffic on a map before COVID-19's impact


Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations Visualizing electric vehicle charging stations in the United States and Canada on a map


In terms of maps depicting overcrowdedness in outer space, good analogies to the mapping of artificial satellites relative to Earth would be the mapping of airplane flight traffic and the mapping of locations of USA vehicle fuel charging stations. (See airplane flight traffic and electric vehicle fueling stations graphics above.) In terms of the distances between airplanes in the sky or charging stations on the ground, the reality is this: They are not nearly about as congested or cluttered together as they appear on the map. Anyone who has flown on an airplane knows fully well that there are not lots of airplanes flying about all around them. Anyone on the ground might recognize numerous fossil fuel service stations but they are not likely to see very many equivalent electric vehicle charging stations. The airplane flight traffic maps and vehicle fuel charging stations maps do not reflect a deliberate attempt to mislead the viewer. Rather, it is difficult to accurately depict the true scale of airplanes, charging stations, or artificial satellites on a map relative to the size of Earth because they would be too tiny to see.



Orbital altitudes | wikimedia.org | Credit: Rrakanishu A perfectly scaled diagram visualizing the orbital altitudes of several significant satellites of Earth along with the proximity of the Moon to Earth vis-à-vis Earth's artificial satellites.


Understandably, for national security purposes, there are certain military-related satellites in outer space that countries do not want their whereabouts to be publicized. After all, the military's presence in the space domain began not so much to track artificial satellites. The military's initial involvement in the space domain was for both offensive and defensive purposes but mainly as a monitoring safeguard against missile attacks. At the same time, with the current number of satellite launches and the amount of satellite debris expanding exponentially, it is crucial to devise a technology capable of tracking the orbits of as many satellites and as much satellite debris as possible.

The next accordion graphic below illustrates how, over the ensuing years, a cottage industry or ecosystem has emerged or sprouted for the purpose of spacecraft launches, satellite tracking, and satellite-debris tracking. The accordion graphic below only represents a sampling of some of the more notable players in this cottage industry for satellite tracking, satellite-debris tracking, and space launches. The accordion graphic is by no means comprehensive or exhaustive.


A Representative View of the Burgeoning and Flourishing Artificial Satellite Ecosystem to Emerge Over the Decades Since the 1950's

1. View the Public Sector's Connections to Artificial Satellites

2. View the Industry Association's Connections to Artificial Satellites

3. View the Social (Non-Profit) Sector's Connections to Artificial Satellites

4. View the Private Sector's Connections to Artificial Satellites


Primary Source for Above's [Accordion-Style] Representative View of the Artificial Satellite Ecosystem:
National Academy of Public Administration


The next graphic provides a general overview of current developments in outer space, say, from 100 to 50,000 miles (160 to 80,000 kilometers) immediately above Earth.

Space Sustainability Infographic A need for humankind to preserve the usability of outer space | Credit: Visual Capitalist


The next graphic outlines the type of comprehensive approach and international cooperation that will be required to successfully meet the challenges posed by the anticipated explosive growth in artificial satellites launches along with the expected exponential growth in satellite debris going forward into the future.

Capabilities essential to performing the SSA (space situational awareness) and STM (space traffic management) functions | National Academy of Public Administration Capabilities essential to performing the SSA (space situational awareness) and STM (space traffic management) functions and preserving the usability of outer space | Credit: National Academy of Public Administration


II. A Little Satellite Background History: FROM THEN TO NOW

What is a satellite? A satellite is a natural or human-made object that travels around or orbits something else. There are natural satellites such as the Moon (which travels around the Earth) or the planets (which travel around the Sun). For example, Earth is a natural satellite of the Sun. The Moon is a natural satellite of Earth.

And there are artificial satellites such as the International Space Station (which also travels around the Earth). Normally, when a smaller body orbits a larger body, the smaller body is said to be a satellite of the larger body.

The natural satellite story goes back to all of eternity. Questions surrounding the origins of Existence (namely, the Universe, Galaxies, Solar System, Earth, and life on Earth) are vociferously debated among theologians, scholars, scientists and laypersons. Suffice it to say that the Universe exists. Among the Universe's existence is the wondrous galaxy known as the Milky Way galaxy. Among the wondrous Milky Way galaxy is the splendid Solar System.

Among the splendid Solar System is magnificent planet Earth, which is the only known planet to harbor the miracle of life. Circling or orbiting planet Earth is its world renowned natural satellite called the Moon. The next graphic shows a legacy or traditional view of Earth, the Moon, and the surrounding Solar System neighborhood.



A More Traditional, 20th Century View of Earth and the Solar System FROM THEN: A More Traditional, 20th Century Human View of Earth, the Solar System, and the Universe. Image Credits: NASA/ESA


Since time immemorial, humans have viewed the Moon as the only known object or natural satellite to orbit Earth. On average, the distance of the Moon from Earth is some 384,400 kilometers or 238,855 miles away. Led by the USSR's (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or present-day Russia's) 20th century space-navigation ingenuity, the Moon-only orbit of Earth picture was about to change. With the launch of the USSR's Sputnik artificial satellite in 1957, suddenly, the Moon had a companion to orbit Earth. The USSR's 1957 launch of Sputnik was later followed by the USA's 1958 launch of the Explorer 1 artificial satellite. These Earth-orbiting companions came to be known as artificial satellites.

The Moon rotates as it orbits the Earth. Video Credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio


Why Doesn't the Moon Fall Down? Video Credit: pbslearningmedia.org


Some background and historical information are in order here. How and why did these kinds of artificial-satellite and satellite-debris discussions come into being? The short answer is that it all began with Sputnik. But, before Sputnik, there was the great Sir Isaac Newton. To put the satellite and satellite-debris problem into historical perspective, the story goes back to 1687 when the great Sir Isaac Newton published his book titled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"). Sir Isaac Newton mathematically outlined his laws of motion and his universal law of gravitation to explain how the Universe works at a large-scale, mechanical level. Sir Isaac Newton's math provided a more sophisticated explanation for the observed motions of the planets. (It should be noted that Sir Isaac Newton's insights into the workings of gravity represented a revision of Johannes Kepler's insights into the motions of planets. Of course, Albert Einstein would emerge many years later to radically transform the Newtonian view of how the Universe works. Einstein's theory of relativity is the subject for a different discussion and will not be discussed here.)

One revelation to emerge from Sir Isaac Newton's work was that, with the appropriate amount of force, objects could be made to permanently leave planet Earth—or to permanently leave any heavenly body for that matter. This force is known as the heavenly body's escape velocity. Given the accumulated body of knowledge in the field of space science since Sir Isaac Newton's time, among many, many other things, NASA has devised various planetary planetary factsheets. Some of these factsheets reveal the escape velocities for different planets in the Solar System. According to NASA's tables, the escape velocity for Earth is a force of at least 11.2 kilometers per second (or 7.0 miles per second), which translates into roughly 40,320 kilometers per hour or 25,100 miles per hour. For any motion towards outer space below the Earth's specified escape velocity of 40,320 kilometers per hour or 25,100 miles per hour, the object would fall back down to Earth due to the force of gravity.

Another revelation to be mathematically deduced or derived from Sir Isaac Newton's work was that, with a precise amount of force or velocity (that is, not too fast and not too slow), objects could be made to orbit around a heavenly body in much the same manner as the Moon orbits around Earth or the planets orbit around the Sun. It was this insight into Sir Isaac Newton's work that enabled humans to compute precisely what dynamics were required to place artificial satellites into orbit around Earth—and, indeed, to place artificial satellites into orbit around other heavenly bodies in the Solar System, too.

Keys To Elementary School Success Keys To Middle School Success Keys To High School Success Keys To College Success

Click any of the four Newton images above and the full cover image will populate here.

The above set of four posters explains Newton's laws of motion and gravitation. The set includes one poster for each of Newton's three laws of motion and the fourth poster for his law of gravitation. Image Credits: imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov | Swift Learning Center



The following videos and graphic provide insights into the mathematics behind satellite orbits.

Watch (Satellite Motion Principles)


Watch (Satellite Motion Principles)


Why Don't Satellites Fall out of the Sky? | NOAA SciJinks – All About Weather Read this poster to learn why satellites do not fall out of the sky!


Watch (Satellite Motion Mathematics)


This animation shows a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit about the Earth. When orbiting at a certain height a satellite's period of rotation is the same as the Earth's, exactly one day. | wikimedia.org | Credit: Talifero Geosynchronous orbit animation. This animation shows a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit about the Earth. When orbiting at a certain height a satellite's period of rotation is the same as the Earth's, exactly one day.


Click This Button to Read More About How Satellite Orbits Are Derived


Also, before Sputnik and before humans could fathom the notion of flying in Earth's outer space domain, it was those daring Wright brothers who first entertained and tinkered with the notion of humans flying at all. They introduced the world to mechanized flight at Kitty Hawk in 1903. Notwithstanding pre-existing human flight using hot-air balloons dating back to the late 1700's, suddenly, the Wright brothers paved the way for humans to soar into the sky just like the birds soar. The Wright brothers' feat with mechanized flight inspired humans to reach for the stars.



Watch (Wright Brothers First Flight, 1903)


The contemporary artificial satellite story began in earnest with the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or present-day Russia) in the person of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935). He was a pioneer in the field of rocket science. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky pioneering work contributed to Russia's successful launch into orbit of its Sputnik artificial satellite in 1957.

"History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race." Source: NASA


Not only was the USSR the first country to launch an artificial satellite into orbit around Earth but also it was the first country to place a human into orbit around Earth. On April 12, 1961, Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin completed one orbit around Earth in the USSR's Vostok 1 capsule. As captured by the UN's space timeline, the USSR has logged numerous "firsts" in outer space. When it comes to navigating the outer space domain, clearly, Russia has been a trailblazer. Russia has led the way.



Watch (Yuri Gagarin - First spaceflight)


With the USSR successfully launching both a satellite and a human into orbit around Earth, the space race had begun in earnest. Or, as the saying goes, the rest is history. To be sure, nowadays as of 2022, the USA, China, and the European Union have begun to equal and even eclipse the Russian prowess in the field of space exploration.



Watch (Who Owns Space?)


The emergence and prominence of artificial satellites are causing humans to view the Solar System neighborhood—and the entire Universe—in a new light. The next graphic shows a more contemporary, 21st century view of Earth and the Solar System. Based on the next graphic and based on humans' contemporary presence in the outer space domain as of 2022, evidently, humans have come a long ways since Yuri Gagarin's first human flight into outer space in 1961.



USA's National Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Architecture USA's National Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Architecture


SCaN offers a comprehensive set of standard services based upon its charter to provide communications and navigation for its customers from launch through the entire mission life cycle. TO NOW: "SCaN offers a comprehensive set of standard services based upon its charter to provide communications and navigation for its customers from launch through the entire mission life cycle. Customers—including NASA, national and international partner agencies, and commercial spacecraft—are provided services through the Deep Space Network, managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Near Space Network, managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center."


Watch (The Multi-GNSS Space Service Volume: Earth's Next Navigation Utility)


Watch [Stunning New Universe Fly-Through Really Puts Things Into Perspective (featuring Monolake, Inwards (VLSI Version))]


III. The Flourishing of Artificial Satellites

The USA's military initial involvement in satellite tracking cannot exactly be described as emanating from neither nefarious nor benevolent motivations. Rather, the USA's military involvement in satellite tracking and harnessing the outer space domain was for national security purposes to promote the common national defense. In its professed mission to militarily dominate the outer space domain, the USA military found it necessary to keep track of the various artificial satellites orbiting Earth.



Satellite Motion. Video Credit: pbslearningmedia.org


This animation shows the orbits of NASA's fleet of Earth observing spacecraft that were operational as of March 2017.


Watch (Artificial Satellites of Earth and Their Orbits)


If the Moon is the most popular natural satellite seen above Earth, then one of the most recognized or well-known artificial satellites currently in orbit around Earth has to be the International Space Station (ISS).



Earth Satellite Orbits One way of classifying orbits is by altitude. Low Earth orbit starts just above the top of the atmosphere in the thermosphere region, while high Earth orbit begins about one tenth of the way to the moon. (NASA illustration by Robert Simmon)


Type of Orbits Some different types of artificial satellite orbits


Every [Active] Satellite Orbiting Earth and Who Owns Them | Dewesoft.com The research team at Dewesoft analyzed data collected by the UCS Satellite Database, ESRI, and the Space Foundation to create a list of the 50 owners of the most satellites orbiting Earth.


As of 2022, when it comes to total number of active satellites currently in orbit above Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) and the China's Tiangong Space Station (CSS) perhaps are two of the most prominent artificial satellites of them all as depicted by the graphics and simulations below. Possibly, they are two of the most prominent artificial satellites due both to their large sizes and also due to the fact that they host humans aboard as a place to live.

A More Contemporary, 21st Century View of Earth and the Solar System A More Contemporary, 21st Century View of Earth and the Solar System Views of the International Space Station (ISS)



China's Tiangong space station (CSS) China's Tiangong space station (CSS) Views of China's Tiangong space station (CSS) - screen image captured at Beijing Aerospace Control Center in Beijing, capital of China, Oct. 16, 2021 shows three Chinese astronauts, Zhai Zhigang (center), Wang Yaping (right) and Ye Guangfu, waving after entering the space station core module Tianhe. (Xinhua/Tian Dingyu)

SpaceX, the company, serves as a vivid example of the benefits of space exploration. Perhaps the most curious, interesting, and simple artificial satellite of them all is SpaceX's Tesla Roadster Starman satellite. Unlike, say, its Starlink satellites, SpaceX's Tesla Roadster Starman is a novelty artificial satellite in that it does not host a lot of technical capabilities on board. It appears that SpaceX's Tesla Roadster Starman was one of those just-for-fun projects. At the same time, on a more serious note, SpaceX's Tesla Roadster Starman satellite serves a beacon to shine a light on the human potential for leaving planet Earth and accomplishing big things in space. SpaceX's Tesla Roadster Starman satellite serves as a vivid and novel illustration of the enormous benefits to be reaped from space exploration.


SpaceX employees watch the Falcon 9 SES-8 launch from Spacex headquarters in Hawthorne, CA | wikimedia.org | Credit: SpaceX Photos SpaceX employees watch the Falcon 9 SES-8 launch from SpaceX headquarters in Hawthorne, CA


A More Contemporary, 21st Century View of Earth and the Solar System Tesla Roadster/Falcon 9H artificial satellite

Watch (Where Is Elon Musk's $100K Roadster He Sent To Space A Year Ago?)


Tesla Roadster orbit from JPL elements Feb 9, 2018 | wikimedia.org | Juan C. Toledo-Roy Annotated diagram of the heliocentric orbit of the Tesla Roadster launched by SpaceX on the Falcon Heavy on Feb 6, 2018. Uses JPL Horizons osculating orbital elements for May 1, 2018 (obtained Feb 10, 2018). Planetary positions correspond to launch date.


Watch (World Wide Wifi)


IV. From Artificial Satellites to Space Debris

Fast forward to 2022, and a new challenge has arisen. This new challenge is one that resides above Earth, and it is not the inordinate amount of carbon dioxide and methane being injected into the atmosphere, thus, spurring an onset of climate change. Rather, this new challenge is that of a growing proliferation of artificial satellites orbiting Earth and, more importantly, the concomitant spread of satellite debris.

Dr. J.-C. Liou, in his paper titled Orbital Debris Modeling and the Future Orbital Debris Environment, defines orbital debris as "any man-made object in orbit about the Earth that no longer serves a useful purpose."

Scientists and researchers, in conjunction with telescopes and space probes, have documented both the composition of the Solar System's asteroid belt and the rings of Saturn. Both the asteroid belt and Saturn's rings are comprised of an assortment of orbiting rocks and boulders of various sizes. They are orbiting at great rates of speed. They can be viewed as a form of orbital debris.

Watch (Saturn's Rings Finally Explained After 400 Years)


Many do not appreciate the fact that Earth has its very own version of an asteroid belt of sorts. The Earth's version of an asteroid belt comes in the form of the thousands of artificial satellites and millions of pieces of space debris in orbit around Earth. Problems proliferate or get compounded when some of these satellites stop functioning and when some artificial satellites collide. The end result is the growth of more and more idle debris encircling Earth. Could this Earth debris transform itself into a ring around Earth at some date far into the future?

Humans are all too familiar with images of out-of-control pollution, blight, garbage, waste, debris, and conflict on Earth. The question becomes this: Do humans also want to repeat the equivalent of out-of-control pollution, blight, garbage, waste, debris, and conflict above Earth?



The Map of Plastic Pollution | by Domain of Science - Dominic Walliman The Map of Plastic Pollution by Domain of Science - Dominic Walliman


What is Space Junk? Video Credit: pbslearningmedia.org


space junk infographic | worldsciencefestival.com "Infographic: Sorting Through Our Space Junk" by Julie Rossman and Roxanne Palmer, CC BY-SA


Waste In Space "Currently, a thick band of levitating space junk—composed primarily of broken satellite pieces and discarded rocket boosters—skirts the Earth. Two or three times a day, a satellite circling our planet narrowly misses a torrent of the orbital debris. This phenomenon has jeopardized not only current space travelers, but future missions as well." Source: NASA


the proliferation of stuff in space Then and now: The constant growth of space debris in Near-Earth environment over the years (1957-2010)


Press the "Esc" key to exit satellite map's full screen mode

Richie Carmichael's depiction of objects in the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog are shown. Sizes of the dots relative to size of Earth are not to scale.


"The orbital debris dots are scaled according to the image size of the graphic to optimize their visibility and are not scaled to Earth. These images provide a good visualization of where the greatest orbital debris populations exist." Source: orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov

ARES | Orbital Debris Program Office | Quarterly News Volume 26, Issue 3, September 2022 | orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov August 2022 - Effective Number of Objects in Earth Orbit cataloged and tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network.


Size, Amount, and Potential Risk of Orbital Debris Size, amount, and potential risk of orbital debris


A summary of collision energies of various sized particles. A summary of collision energies of various sized particles. Notice that tiny space debris can be deadly and are typically not trackable.

A Guide to Orbital Space Debris
Classification of Space Debris
Objects in Earth Orbit
Causes of Space Debris
Countries Responsible for Space Debris
Australian Space Academy's Guide to Orbital Space Debris

Dr. J.-C. Liou outlines the primary causes of space debris as follows:

  • Intacts: Spent rocket bodies (R/Bs, i.e., upper stages) and retired spacecraft (S/C, i.e., payloads)
  • Breakup fragments (via explosions or collisions)
  • Mission-related debris: objects released during normal mission operations (engine covers, yo-yo despin weights, etc.)
  • Solid rocket motor effluents (Al2O3 slag and dust particles)
  • NaK droplets (coolant leaked from Russian nuclear reactors)
  • Surface degradation debris (paint flakes, etc.)


Perhaps NASA put the matter of orbital debris into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Orbital Debris Also Known As "Space Junk"

"Millions of pieces of orbital debris exist today—at least 26,000 of which are the size of a softball or larger that could destroy a satellite on impact; over 500,000 of these are the size of a marble big enough to cause damage; and over 100 million are the size of a grain of salt that could puncture a spacesuit—amplifying the risk of catastrophic collisions to spacecraft and crew. Moreover, the growing volume of orbital debris threatens the loss of important space-based applications used in daily life, such as weather forecasting, telecommunications, and global positioning systems that are dependent on a stable space environment. Orbital debris is a global concern with stakeholders across public, civil, and private sectors who have adopted an array of guidelines, standards, and policies to limit the generation of future debris. However, global compliance with these guidelines, standards, and policies remains low, and global remediation activities designed to remove existing debris from space are limited and largely in the planning phases of development."


Watch (What Elon Musk's 42,000 Satellites Could Do To Earth)


Watch [The Trouble with Space Junk (BBC)]


Perhaps one of the most definitive documentary films about the looming problem of satellite debris is the film titled Space Junk 3D.

V. From Space Debris to Space Weather

As explained by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA), "space weather can influence the performance & reliability of numerous technological systems that we depend on daily such as GPS, power grids & satellite communication." The emergence of space weather-tracking satellites and the study of space weather is to keep "a close eye on space weather alerting the public & key industries when solar storms impact Earth."



Watch (An Introduction to Space Weather and the Space Weather Prediction Center)


Watch (Stormy Space Weather - SciJinks in a Snap)


Watch (This Is How Solar Storms Destroy Satellites)


Solar Space Telescopes. Video Credit: pbslearningmedia.org


Adverse physical phenomena across Earth such as climate change and global warming typically are attributed to the activities of humans on Earth. Space weather, on the other hand, is attributed to activities emanating from the Sun with potential adverse impacts for humans on Earth. Artificial satellite collisions and space debris are not the only challenges facing humans emanating from outer space. The possibility of adverse space weather is another major challenge. Noting this challenge, humans have begun monitoring space weather emanating from activities occurring on the Sun.

The USA Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been a trailblazer in the study, monitoring, and forecasting of space weather. Some of NOAA's work on space weather is illustrated below.



Space weather: Storms from the Sun | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Eruptions from the Sun's surface can cause space weather storms that affect technology here on Earth. 


SVS: Space Weather Infographics Three components of space weather


Earth's Upper Atmosphere | NASA This graphic focuses on the four primary layers of the Earth's atmosphere: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. These layers protect our planet by absorbing harmful radiation. Credit: NASA


SANSA is an entity of the Department of Science & Innovation and will ensure the implementation of the South African National Space Strategy Space weather can influence the performance & reliability of numerous technological systems that we depend on daily such as GPS, power grids & satellite communication. SANSA keeps a close eye on space weather alerting the public & key industries when solar storms impact Earth. Credit: South African National Space Agency (SANSA)


Inside Space Weather Prediction Center in Boulder | wikimedia.org | SWPC/NOAA Forecasters in front of lots of screens inside the Space Weather Forecast Office of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) in Boulder, Colorado. Scientists keep an eye on the Sun. The GOES satellites send images that show activity on the Sun's surface that means a flare or eruption may be about to happen.


NOAA Space Weather Scales The NOAA Space Weather Scales were introduced as a way to communicate to the general public the current and future space weather conditions and their possible effects on people and systems…The scales describe the environmental disturbances for three event types: geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. The scales have numbered levels, analogous to hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes that convey severity. They list possible effects at each level. They also show how often such events happen, and give a measure of the intensity of the physical causes. Credit: NOAA


Without a doubt, if something truly horrific or harmful for Earth ever occurred on the Sun, say, for instance, a solar tsunami type of an event, then humans will find out about it soon enough. Space weather tracking merely serves as an early-warning system thanks in large measure to Sun-observing satellites. Space weather tracking serves as a buffer to give humans enough time to react and protect themselves if something terrible or life-threatening for Earth occurred on the Sun.

Perhaps NASA put the matter of space weather into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Space Weather: A Brief Introduction

"Though space is about a thousand times emptier than even the best laboratory vacuums on Earth, it’s not completely devoid of matter – the sun’s constant outflow of solar wind fills space with a thin and tenuous wash of particles, fields, and plasma. This solar wind, along with other solar events like giant explosions called coronal mass ejections, influences the very nature of space and can interact with the magnetic systems of Earth and other worlds. Such effects also change the radiation environment through which our spacecraft – and, one day, our astronauts headed to Mars – travel. The space environment around Earth can also vary wildly in response not only to the Sun, but from upwelling atmospheric events from below. Such space weather can interfere with satellite electronics, radio communications and GPS signals, spacecraft orbits, and even – when extreme – power grids on Earth. Like our terrestrial weather, space weather can be extreme at times, but exists all the time. As such, it is important to understand space weather in order to predict and accommodate to it."


VI. From Space Weather to Space Safety and Sustainability

As mentioned earlier, the not-so-good aspect of artificial satellites is that they are not designed to operate forever. Not only do artificial satellites break down and stop working but also there are accidental collisions between artificial satellites and sometimes the deliberate destruction of artificial satellites. The problem and the challenge become these:

  • Determining what to do with these artificial satellites when their useful lives have ended. Do they remain in orbit in perpetuity? Are they jettisoned back to Earth to burn up when re-entering the Earth's atmosphere? Are they safely collected and disposed of on Earth in a planned and organized manner? Is the artificial satellite launch technology improved to minimize the occurrence of debris?
  • What could or should be done about all of the artificial satellite debris currently floating in orbit above Earth?

The outer space sustainability movement has emerged in tandem with the broader anti-climate change, anti-global warming, and pro-sustainable development movements on Earth. As the United Nations organization puts it, the global idea behind these various movements is to "to promote prosperity while protecting the planet." There is a general recognition that not only should there be sustainable development on Earth but also sustainable development in the immediate atmosphere above Earth.



UNOOSA and ESA release infographics and podcasts about space debris An overview of space debris signaling a need for debris mitigation or outer space sustainability


Watch (Kessler Syndrome | Space Junk)


In the next graphic, Dr. J.-C. Liou describes the challenges confronting humans in coping with a proliferation of space debris as follows:



The challenge of active debris removal (ADR) The issues and challenges of active debris removal (ADR)


In the next graphic, Dr. J.-C. Liou describes a projected worst-case scenario confronting humans if little to no actions are taken to mitigate the proliferation of 10-centimeter-sized space debris objects and larger as follows:



Space debris future: worst case scenario with no mitigation actions A need to minimize space debris and preserve the space environment for the responsible, peaceful, and safe use of all—a worst-case scenario for inaction.


Perhaps NASA put the matter of space sustainability into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Synopsis:

Promoting Space Sustainability

"The Earth's orbital space environment constitutes a finite resource that is being used by an increasing number of States, international intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental entities. The proliferation of space debris, the increasing complexity of space operations, the emergence of large constellations and the increased risks of collision and interference with the operation of space objects may affect the long-term sustainability of space activities. Addressing these developments and risks requires international cooperation by States and international intergovernmental organizations to avoid harm to the space environment and the safety of space operations."


UNOOSA and ESA release infographics and podcasts about space debris Promoting and heralding sustainable outer space


VII. The Jumpoff: From Living in the Slums to Living on the Moon, Mars, Space Colonies, and Beyond the Solar System (Through Sustainable Earth and Sustainable Outer Space), Or An Elevation of the Human Mindset and the Human Condition to A Higher Living Mode

The jumpoff means the human uplift. The jumpoff means humankind making a deliberate choice to foster peace and prosperity on Earth as a matter of course in daily living. The jumpoff means jumping off to a better world. The jumpoff means jumping off to a state of sustainable living. The jumpoff means jumping off planet Earth and also living on another heavenly body in outer space. The jumpoff means to rise above the mire and elevate the human condition to ever-higher living standards.

As summarized by the Sustainable Development Goals graphic below, humankind is continually confronted with an array of challenges and problems to tackle. Humankind is continually bombarded with a seemingly endless array of challenges. Could it be that some answers and some solutions to these problems and challenges, in part, might emanate from human endeavors such as the peaceful exploration—and colonization—of space? It is a thought to ponder. For, ultimately, the jumpoff is about human choosing a life of Heaven on Earth over a life of Hell on Earth. Ultimately, the jumpoff is about human choosing survival over extinction. Choose life. Choose Heaven on Earth.



Planet Earth


THE 17 GOALS | Sustainable Development The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice. Credit: United Nations (UN)


International Day for Biological Diversity The United Nations has proclaimed May 22, the International Day for Biological Diversity, to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues. Credit: United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)




Perhaps the UN put the matter of global sustainable development into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Sustainable Earth

"The Sustainable Development Goals are a call for action by all countries – poor, rich and middle-income – to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. They recognize that ending poverty must go hand-in-hand with strategies that build economic growth and address a range of social needs including education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change and environmental protection."


The next slideshow offers stark, graphical evidence that the present-day human mindset and the present-day human condition are not all to the good. Numerous humans needs remain unfulfilled, and numerous challenges continue to confront humankind. All humans need to be properly fed, clothed, and sheltered in accordance with some minimum globally accepted standard of subsistence.

 A boy checked his feet as he walked through waste and trash in a slum for displaced people on the outskirts of Phnom Penh. [Credit: Robert James Elliott for The International Herald Tribune] 4ocean is one of the only companies in the world that directly manages a global ocean cleanup operation and employs professional, full-time captains and crews to recover plastic and other harmful debris from the world’s oceans, rivers, and coastlines seven days a week. [Credit: 4ocean.com] An albatross chick sits along a white sand beach at the Midway Atoll Wildlife Refuge amid plastic that covers the area even though it is not inhabited by humans. It is evidence of a global plastic problem. A new chemical conversion process developed by Purdue University researchers could transform the world’s polyolefin waste, a form of plastic, into useful products, such as clean fuels and other items. (NOAA photo) [Credit: NOAA] Roadside trash at Bay St. Louis, MS (Credit: hancockcounty.ms.gov) A girl stood outside a school in the Mukuru kwa Njenga slum in Nairobi, Kenya, Tuesday. An Amnesty International Report released Tuesday says the government has failed to incorporate slums, leaving women vulnerable to sexual and other attacks.) [Credit: Tony Karumba/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images] The universal urban slum environment gives its architecture a globalized nature. (Credit: The Perfect Slum by Sytse de Maat) Industrial water pollution. Untreated effluent (waste water) flowing out of a pipe. It contains pollutants from a chemical factory. Photographed on the Mersey Estuary, Widnes, Cheshire, England. (Credit: ROBERT BROOK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY) In January 2018, Tina started receiving complaints about an illegal tire dump at Lee Kay Ponds at approximately 6600 West 1300 South in Salt Lake City. Visitors to the pond — a popular bird watching spot — reported a large number of old tires dumped along the shores. Mixed in with the tires were mattresses, construction material, and an RV. [Credit: Utah Department of Environmental Quality - Waste Management and Radiation Control] Debris in the Goat Canyon Sediment Basin. (Credit: Tijuana Triver National Estuarine Research Reserve - TRNERR) Delhi Environment Minister Gopal Rai on Thursday [25 Aug 2022] said the city government will launch a 15-point action plan in October to fight air pollution in winter. [Credit: outlookindia.com] Taking a bath in sacred waters filled with trash. [Credit: gangaaction.org] The Perfect Playground. Informal settlement on the beach is marked by lots of open space.
 [Credit: The Perfect Slum by Sytse de Maat] Sewage runs down a street in Dunoon, a township in Cape Town. Sewage spillages and overflows are rife in the area.  [Credit: dailymaverick.co.za | Peter Luhanga] The phenomenon of child soldiers [Credit: moderndiplomacy.eu] A malnourished Afghan child is treated at a hospital in Kandahar. [asiatimes.com | AFP / Murteza Khaliqi / Anadolu Agency] Doomsday scenario: a nuclear annihilation of life on Earth [Credit: Composite | iStockphoto] Orbital Debris Around Earth [Credit: NASA/Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA)]


Inspirational Songs and Videos Exalting the Human Uplift

Watch [Marvin Gaye, Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)]


Watch (Mother, Father, Sister, Brother​ featuring The Philadelphia International All-Stars, Let's Clean Up The Ghetto)


Watch (Barry White, Change)


Watch (Mariah Carey, Make It Happen)


Watch (The S.O.S Band, Do It Now)


Watch (Earth, Wind & Fire, I've Had Enough)


Watch (Harold Melvin & The Blue Notes, Wake Up Everybody)


Watch (The Isley Brothers, Harvest For The World)


Watch (Stevie Wonder featuring India.Arie and Sir Paul McCartney, A Time To Love)


Watch (Ronnie Laws, There's A Way)


Watch (Lonnie Liston Smith "Expansions" Katalyst and Loren Oden LIVE at Jazz Is Dead)


Watch (The Isley Brothers, Climbin' Up the Ladder, Pts. 1 & 2)


Watch (Earth, Wind & Fire, Faces)


Watch (Earth, Wind & Fire featuring Ramsey Lewis, Sun Goddess)


Distances between Earth and the International Space Station, the Moon and Mars - infographic  - Canadian Space Agency This infographic shows the distance between the Earth and the International Space Station as well as distances between the Earth and the Moon and Mars. It also indicates the communication delay to the Moon and Mars. Credit: Canadian Space Agency


The next three graphics signify humans jumping off from Earth to artificial satellites, to the Moon, to Mars, and ultimately to space colonies.



NASA's overall Level Zero Goals for exploration
encompass these three primary domains – low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and Mars Artemis Base Camp evolves on the surface as the Gateway is leveraged for Mars preparation.


First Humans On Mars (Artist Concept) - June 12, 2019 | wikimedia.org | NASA This artist's concept depicts astronauts and human habitats on Mars. NASA's Mars 2020 rover will carry a number of technologies that could make Mars safer and easier to explore for humans. Credit: NASA


Space Colony Art from the 1970s Toroidal Space Colony: Cutaway view, exposing the interior. Art work: Rick Guidice.


Perhaps SWF (Secure World Foundation) put the matter of space sustainability into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Sustainable Space

"Space sustainability is…Ensuring that all humanity can continue to use outer space for peaceful purposes and socioeconomic benefit now and in the long term. This will require international cooperation, discussion, and agreements designed to ensure that outer space is safe, secure, and peaceful."


As humans go about the task of tracking and cataloging artificial satellites and also harnessing space debris, it must be asked this: What happened to the "kind" part in humankind? Has the time arrived for a global human mindset reset for the betterment of humanity? A new mindset is needed to prepare humans for 22nd century living. A better way does exist for humans to live in the 22nd century. For, as the saying goes, "where there's a will, there's a way" to make this better way of living a human reality rather than just another illusionary dream.

To foster a state of enduring space sustainability, in his paper titled Orbital Debris Modeling and the Future Orbital Debris Environment, Dr. J.-C. Liou noted that adoption of the 4 C's is essential to success for all parties involved in the space domain. What are the 4 C's? They are:


  1. Consensus
  2. Cooperation
  3. Collaboration
  4. Contributions

It turns out that these same 4 C's also apply to fostering and maintaining an enduring state of harmony within the diverse human family.

VIII. Honorable Mention And A Big Shout Out to PDCO and CNEOS

If you thought that the prospects for artificial-satellite congestion, space debris, and adverse space weather were the worst of Earth's concerns from outer space, then think again. There's more. The region of the Solar System between Mars and Jupiter is known as the asteroid belt. It is estimated that there are well over one million asteroids floating around within the asteroid belt region. Asteroids can be viewed as natural space debris within the Solar System. Whereby, up to 2022, the USA Department of Defense has maintained primary responsibility for artificial-satellite and artificial-satellite-debris tracking, NASA has maintained primary responsibility for comets and asteroids tracking.

In concluding this year 2022's Annual Bruessard Award, and on a separate but related note, I wish to extend honorable mention to NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) and its Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS). CNEOS is responsible for computing asteroid and comet orbit trajectories and the odds of errant asteroids and comets colliding into Earth. PDCO, in conjunction with domestic and international partners such as The Planetary Society, International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN), and the Minor Planet Center (MPC), is responsible for warning the public and responding to any potential asteroid or comet collision with Earth. PDCO and CNEOS are highly invested in—and devoted to—serving as humankind's early-warning system if an errant asteroid or comet should threaten to strike Earth.



Asteroid belt | esahubble.org | Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Kornmesser This image depicts the two areas where most of the asteroids in the Solar System are found: the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, and the trojans, two groups of asteroids moving ahead of and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun. Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Kornmesser


Watch (Dawn, Mission to the Asteroid Belt HD – Narrated by Leonard Nimoy)


NEO description Description of Near-Earth Objects (NEOS).


Whereas Space Delta 2 is hard at work identifying, cataloging, and tracking the whereabouts of artificial satellites and artificial satellite debris, CNEOS is fast at work identifying, cataloging, tracking, and mitigating asteroids and comets that could pose as a perilous danger to life on Earth. An asteroid strike does pose as an existential threat to humankind. Inasmuch as possible, the primary mission of PDCO and CNEOS is to endeavor to warn and mitigate against another catastrophic asteroid strike on Earth. Inasmuch as possible, the idea is to alert and avert a likely extinction-inducing fate from outer space for humans similar to the fate that visited the dinosaurs over 65 million years ago.



Watch (What Are Asteroids And Where Do They Come From?)


Watch (How Crowded Is The Asteroid Belt Really?)


Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) and Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS)
NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) emblem NASA's Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) emblem
planetary defense components
NASA's larger planetary defense efforts.


Watch (NASA Planetary Defense: The Asteroid Hunters)




The Four Largest Asteroids | commons.wikimedia.org (compiled by PlanetUser and by kwamikagami) | Ceres and Vesta images: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA | Pallas and Hygiea images: eso.org These are the four largest asteroids (known as "The Big Four"): Ceres (939 km), Vesta (525 km), Pallas (512 km), and Hygiea (430 km).


Numbers of Asteroids Near Earth | nasa.gov | Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech This chart shows how data from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, has led to revisions in the estimated population of near-Earth asteroids…
  • NEOWISE observed more than 500 objects larger than 100-meters (330-feet) wide -- what can be thought of as medium to large-size asteroids…
  • For the largest asteroids, larger than 1,000 meters (3,300 feet), NEOWISE data revises the total population down to 981…
  • the estimated numbers of medium-sized asteroids, which are defined as those objects between 100 meters and 1,000 meters (330 and 3,300 feet). Estimates now indicate about 19,500…
  • The study does not apply to objects smaller than 100 meters (330 feet), but it is estimated that there are more than a million in this size range.
  • Text and Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


The following organizational charts provide an overview of NASA's organizational structure. In particular, these charts drill down from NASA's Office of Associate Administrator to its Science Mission Directorate (SMD)'s Planetary Science Division. Finally, the Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) is housed within the Planetary Science Division. On something of a related but dotted-line basis, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) unit is tasked with working in conjunction with PDCO to perform NEO-related functions.

NASA Organization Structure An overview of NASA's organizational structure


Office of the Associate Administrator NASA's Office of the Associate Administrator


Planetary Defense Coordination Office Organization Chart

Planetary Defense Coordination Office Organization Chart


Given the estimated 4.5 billion years of natural history on Earth, the giant reptiles and dinosaurs reigned as the supreme life forms during the Cretaceous period some 145 to 66 million years ago. It is posited that a giant asteroid crashed into Earth, which caused the dinosaurs to go extinct some 65 million years ago (that is, the dinosaurs became extinct as a result of the so-called "nuclear winter" fallout from the giant asteroid strike). The extinction of the dinosaurs allowed the mammals to emerge and thrive during the Quaternary period, which continues until today in 2022.



Cretaceous age Quetzalcoatlus and T. rex are featured in this mural created for Big Bend's Fossil Discovery Exhibit. Big Bend National Park, Texas. NPS image of mural by paleoartists Julius Csotonyi and Alexandra Lefort. Cretaceous age Quetzalcoatlus and T. rex are featured in this mural created for Big Bend's Fossil Discovery Exhibit. Big Bend National Park, Texas. NPS image of mural by paleoartists Julius Csotonyi and Alexandra Lefort.


This Time Spiral shows Earth's history Jurassic Coast Timeline of Earth's Natural History


A geologic history of Earth since its formation | standardsinpuzzles.com A geologic history of Earth since its formation


Woolly mammoths were driven to extinction by climate change and human impacts. (Credit: Mauricio Anton) | Sedwick C (2008) What Killed the Woolly Mammoth? PLoS Biol 6(4): e99. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060099 Late Pleistocene landscape in northern Spain with woolly mammoths


Although the asteroid belt is located at a much, much greater distance from Earth than are the locations of artificial satellites and artificial satellite debris, errant asteroids do remain of great concern to humans. From time to time, some of these asteroids break free of the asteroid belt and begin to roam through the inner parts of the Solar System. Some of these freely roaming asteroids travel along a path towards Earth or in close proximity to Earth relative to the asteroid belt's distance from Earth. When asteroids—and comets—venture within 120 millions miles (or 195 million kilometers) of Earth, they are considered to be Near-Earth Objects (NEOS). But, not to worry too much, for in the case of errant asteroids and comets, NASA is fast at work endeavoring to defend Earth and mitigate the impact of potential collisions between Earth and these errant asteroids and comets as exemplified by the below-depicted DART mission.



NASA Organization Structure Zoomed out view of the asteroid belt / NASA's Small Bodies Fleet. Credit: NASA Credit: NASA


The asteroid belt itself is divided into groups and zones. The innermost portion of the asteroid belt closest to Mars is known as the Hungaria group. The beginning of the Hungaria group, on average, is estimated to be about 2 AU (185,911,615 miles or 299,195,741 kilometers) from the Sun.

Average Solar System Distances and Times from the Sun
Sun / Heavenly Body Average Distance and Travel Time Comparisons Average Distance from Sun (in Kilometers) Average Distance from Sun (in Miles) Equivalent Distance from Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) Time Light Travels from Sun in Minutes
Mercury  57,900,000 35,977,392 0.39 3.22
Venus  108,200,000 67,232,363 0.72 6.02
Earth  149,597,871 92,955,807 1.00 8.32
Mars  227,900,000 141,610,495 1.52 12.67
Asteroid Belt (Hungaria) 299,195,741 185,911,614 2.00 16.63
Asteroid Vesta 353,350,171 219,561,617 2.36 19.64
Asteroid Ceres 414,086,906 257,301,674 2.77 23.02
Comet Encke 330,611,294 205,432,334 2.21 18.38
Comet Halley 2,683,785,800 1,667,627,182 17.94 149.20
Jupiter  778,600,000 483,799,610 5.20 43.29
Saturn  1,433,500,000 890,735,604 9.58 79.69
Uranus  2,872,500,000 1,784,888,749 19.20 159.69
Neptune  4,495,100,000 2,793,125,645 30.05 249.90
Pluto  5,906,400,000 3,670,066,808 39.48 328.36
Note:
Convert kilometers to miles: kilometers × 0.621371192
Convert kilometers to astronomical units: kilometer ÷ 149,597,870.7 or miles ÷ 92,955,807.2375209
Derive travel time in minutes: kilometers ÷ (299,792.458 × 60) or miles ÷ (186,282.39698007 × 60)

Data Sources for Table:
Asteroid Fact Sheet
Comet Fact Sheet
Planetary Fact Sheet - Metric
Lunar & Planetary Science

Solar System Distances to Scale Solar System Distances to Scale


Distribution of asteroids in semimajor axis, eccentricity space contained in the inner Solar System This graph was created in June 2007 using all asteroids with "well-determined" orbits (specifically 159366 numbered asteroids).


Perhaps NASA put the matter of near-Earth objects into perspective more succinctly in the following direct quotation:

Near-Earth Object (NEO)

"Near-Earth objects are asteroids and comets with orbits that bring them to within 120 million miles (195 million kilometers) of the Sun, which means they can circulate through the Earth’s orbital neighborhood. Most near-Earth objects are asteroids that range in size from about 10 feet (a few meters) to nearly 25 miles (40 kilometers) across…
The majority of near-Earth objects have orbits that don't bring them very close to Earth, and therefore pose no risk of impact, but a small fraction of them – called potentially hazardous asteroids – require more attention. These objects are defined as asteroids that are more than about 460 feet (140 meters) in size with orbits that bring them as close as within 4.6 million miles (7.5 million kilometers) of Earth's orbit around the Sun. CNEOS continuously monitors all known near-Earth objects to assess any impact risk they may pose."


A map of planets and asteroid groups of the inner solar system. Distances from sun are to scale, object sizes are not | Pablo Carlos Budassi | commons.wikimedia.org A map of planets and asteroid groups of the inner solar system.


At most, NASA's tracking of near-Earth asteroids and comets serves as an early-warning system. In the vernacular of earthquake drills, perhaps the early warnings from NASA's PDCO office would give humans enough time to take shelter and securely "drop, cover, and hold on," so to speak. "Big props" or kudos to NASA for making the proactive attempt to save lives!



Dimorphos asteroid to scale with Rome's Colosseum | esa.int | ESA-Science Office The 160-meter diameter Dimorphos asteroid compared to Rome's Colosseum. In 2022 NASA's DART spacecraft will collide with the Dimorphos moonlet, in orbit around the larger 780-meter diameter Didymos asteroid, in a bid to change its orbit. In 2026 ESA's Hera spacecraft will arrive at the Didymos system to perform a close-up survey of the deflected asteroid.


DART at scale | jpl.nasa.gov | Image credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins APL The sizes of the two asteroids in the Didymos system relative to objects on Earth


P.S. 58 - Carroll & Smith Sts. Bklyn. hold a 'take cover' drill practice. Here youngsters crawl under their desks / / photo by Walter Albertin. P.S. 58 - Carroll & Smith Sts. Bklyn. hold a "take cover" drill practice. Here youngsters crawl under their desks. Photo Credit: Walter Albertin.


The above inner Solar System rollover diagrams show the positions of all numbered asteroids and all numbered comets on 2018 January 1. The orbits and positions of the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Jupiter are also shown. Asteroids are yellow dots and comets are symbolized by sunward-pointing wedges.


Asteroid-crashing DART mission | scmp.com | Image Credit: Doris Wai This artist rendition shows the path that the DART spacecraft took before it slammed into the asteroid Dimorphos. The rendition also shows what is expected to be Dimorphos' new orbit.


Watch (Defending the Planet: NASA’s DART Mission)




Watch (Pluto, Comets, Asteroids, and the Kuiper Belt)


2015-08-12 - Illustration providing an overview of the characteristics of comets, asteroids, meteoroids, meteors, fireballs and meteorites. (Credit: Canadian Space Agency) Comet, asteroid and meteorite illustration. Credit: Canadian Space Agency


Watch (What If Asteroid Apophis Hit Earth?)




Comet Particles Artist depiction of Earth passing through a trail of comet particles


Comet and Asteroid Elements Distribution This graph was created in June 2007 using all asteroids and comets with "well-determined" orbits (specifically, numbered asteroids and comets).


Exploration of Near-Earth Objects Objectives Close-up depiction of asteroid belt objects.


Big Impact A planetoid plows onto the primordial Earth, during the eons of time when conditions were ripe for the development of life. It is possible that life of kinds unknown to us appeared repeatedly only to be destroyed in collisions like this one which could 'rework' the entire surface. Fortunately the average size of debris declined sharply through geologic time, but the supply of wayward rocks a few kilometers in size is by no means exhausted. Credit: Donald E Davis


Watch (Meteor Strikes Russia, Over 1,000 Believed Injured)


comparison strike comparisons: size of asteroid, impact intervals, overall population estimates impacted, and potential damage Near-Earth Objects: Comparisons of Estimated Size to Potential Estimated Damage


Watch (These are the asteroids to worry about)


IX. A Celebration of Humanity and A Celebration of the Miracle of Life on Earth

There are myriad ways in which the world could come to an end, and there are myriad ways in which humans can go extinct. A giant asteroid strike on Earth is but one such way for humans to become extinct. An extinction-inducing event can emanate from outer space. An extinction-inducing event can emanate on Earth from human activities. An extinction-inducing event can emanate on Earth from the forces of Nature.

Given the myriad ways in which humans can become extinct, is the possibility of extinction not reason enough for humans to make the most of their daily lives on Earth? Why shouldn't humans step up and convert Earth into some type of paradise for the living to enjoy each day?

Given the reality of recurring natural disasters on Earth and the resultant pain, suffering, casualties, and loss of life that humans must contend with, why do humans not turn away from retrogressive kinds of human pursuits and behaviors (such as hatred, violence, crime, murder, and an arms race among nations to produce or acquire the most lethal kinds of conventional, nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological weapons for use in war, etc. to name a few)? Why not make expressions such as "swords into ploughshares" and "deserts made to bloom" realities rather than mere illusionary dreams? About the last thing needed is for humans to be the cause of their own extinction thereby making their homo sapiens sapiens designation the opposite of what humans profess to be.

Given the depth, majesty, and diversity of life on Earth, humans have got a good thing going. It would be a crying shame if humans blew it and vanished from the face of Earth like the numerous ancient life forms vanished that once roamed Earth long, long before the arrival of humans. Humans should cherish Earth. Humans should cherish life. The time has come for positive and constructive change on Earth—the type of change that sustains itself and perpetually endures.

A Pageantry of Life on Earth

Slide Show Note: Place mouse cursor on the slide to pause slides; move mouse cursor off the slide to resume slides.

Flower farm in the Snoqualmie Valley in King County near Redmond, Washington (USA) | courtesy of Bureau of Global Public Affairs (GPA) of the United States Department of State Photo Archive at flickr.com | Credit: Jim Choate via Flickr Emperor Penguins (Antarctica) | courtesy of Bureau of Global Public Affairs (GPA) of the United States Department of State Photo Archive at flickr.com | Photographer: Giuseppe Zibordi | Credit: Michael Van Woert, NOAA NESDIS, ORA via Flickr Flower fly on black-eyed Susan in DeWitt, Michigan (USA) | courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Midwest Region (USFWS) at flickr.com | Credit: Jim Hudgins/USFWS Redwoods at Tall Trees Grove - Redwood National Park, CA (USA) | courtesy of Bureau of Global Public Affairs (GPA) of the United States Department of State Photo Archive at flickr.com | Credit: National Park Service (NPS) Photo/Shaina Niehans via Flickr Located 113 to 185 kilometers (70 to 115 miles) off the coast of Texas and Louisiana (USA), Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary is one of the many marine protected areas managed by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries | Credit: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Roberts Farms…in Lauderdale County, TN (USA), on Sept 20, 2019. | 20190920-NRCS-LSC-0093 | by USDAgov | Credit: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) photo by Lance Cheung Sheep are another type of livestock that grazes on public lands | courtesy of Bureau of Global Public Affairs (GPA) of the United States Department of State Photo Archive at flickr.com | Credit: Bob Wick, United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM) via Flickr Gold Butte National Monument covers nearly 300,000 acres of remote and rugged desert landscape in southeastern Nevada (USA), where dramatically chiseled red sandstone, twisting canyons, and tree-clad mountains punctuate desolate stretches of the Mojave Desert | courtesy of Bureau of Global Public Affairs (GPA) of the United States Department of State Photo Archive at flickr.com | Credit: Bureau of Land Management (BLM) via Flickr world wildlife day 2020 - sustaining all life on earth | courtesy of Nature's Valley Trust (NVT) South Africa A composite that consists of the 6 types of life that exist (plants, animals, archaea, bacteria, fungi, and protists) | wikimedia.org | Credit: Brickgraphic CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement, signed by 184 parties, designed to ensure that international trade in animals and plants does not threaten their survival in the wild. The treaty was drafted in Washington, D.C. in 1973 and entered into force in 1975 | Credit: CITES Over 200 students join State Department's Deputy Coordinator for Programs Thomas Smitham to watch and discuss the first presidential debates (2016/09/27). The event was hosted by Pannastra University of Cambodia, where the American Corner Phnom Penh is located. | by USEmbassyPhnomPenh | Credit: U.S. Embassy photo by Un Yarat Aerial view of the United Nations (UN) headquarters (New York City, USA) with the giant frescoe made by artist Saype representing peace and youth participation | courtesy of news.un.org | Credit: Valentin Flauraud for Saype


Earth is a planet teeming with life, and it is the only known habitable home where human can live and thrive. This planetary fact of life is not obvious when planet Earth is viewed through lenses that stretch from the deepest reaches of the Universe. From deep space, for an outside observer, Earth undoubtedly appears to be nothing more than just one of many, many, many quaint, nondescript heavenly bodies floating through space.

From the vantage point of deep space, who would guess that there are humans down there on planet Earth wandering around and engaging in all kinds of activities? From the vantage point of deep space, who would imagine that Earth is gushing, bubbling, bustling, oozing, buzzing, flickering, and inundated with life? Admittedly, there might be some humans wandering around Earth with oversized egos and there might be some stronger nations that abuse their military might to bully weaker nations. It turns out that puny humans are infinitesimally small in the eyes of what seems to be an eternally expansive Universe.

Earlier on this page I noted, sooner or later, "Everything comes to an end." This observation not only applies to the various lifespans of all living things on Earth but also to planet Earth itself. The challenge or duty for the human species is for humans not to be the culprits to cause life on Earth to prematurely come to an end, say, through nuclear warfare or extreme climate change. Earth should not be made to become the next planet Venus as a consequence of human activities.



Save Our Planet / We Love Earth | www.vecteezy.com Save Our Planet / We Love Earth


Enough already with all of these doom-and-gloom ponderings and ruminations. Now is the time to dispense with feeling down, out, defeated, depressed, grumpy, angry, rude, negative, or fussing and fighting. Right now, it is time to celebrate Earth. Right now, it is time to celebrate the miracle of life on Earth. Right now, it is time to celebrate the human species. Right now, it is time to party. Right now, it is time to dance. Right now, it is time for joy and happiness. Right now, it is time to revel. Right now, it is time for fun. So, peoples of the Earth, let the fun begin:



Celebrating the Human Spirit and Celebrating Mother Earth, the Issuer of Life

Watch (Teddy Pendergrass, Get Up, Get Down, Get Funky, Get Loose)


Watch (Marvin Gaye, Got To Give It Up)


Watch (The Isley Brothers, Live It Up, Pts. 1 & 2)


Watch (Earth, Wind & Fire, Happy Feelin')


Watch (Tom Browne featuring Tonni Smith, Funkin' for Jamaica)


Watch (Michael Jackson, Don’t Stop 'Til You Get Enough)


Watch (Michael Jackson, Smooth Criminal)


Watch (Ne-Yo, Champagne Life)


Watch (Usher featuring Pitbull, DJ Got Us Fallin' In Love)


Watch [Let's Go (Ricky Luna Remix) featuring Travis Barker, Yelawolf, Twista, Busta Rhymes, and Lil Jon]


Watch (Michael Jackson Super Bowl 1993 Performance)


Watch (Electro Esthetica, Space Opera)


Watch (Dua Lipa featuring DaBaby, Levitating)


Watch (Natalie La Rose featuring Jeremih, Somebody)


Watch (Marvin Gaye, Rockin' After Midnight)


Watch (Keri Hilson, Make Love)


Watch (The Isley Brothers, Sensuality, Pts. 1 & 2)


Watch (Kool & The Gang, Cherish)


Watch [Marvin Gaye, After The Dance (Instrumental)]


Watch (Lonnie Liston Smith, Floating Through Space)





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